Thursday, January 18, 2018

52 Ancestors #3: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Last Will and Testament

Continued from #52 Ancestors 2: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Morgan's Riflemen.

Ancestor: Benjamin Jennings, four times great grandfather
DNA Haplogroup: I-M253

In 1793 Congress established probate and surrogate courts, and in 1795 an act requiring the recording of deeds, wills and other important instruments was enacted. These new laws were fashioned after British Common Law under which the colonies had been operating since their creation. The main differences were the laws regarding primogeniture and entail. Thomas Jefferson led way for these elements of British Law to be abolished. Otherwise the inheritance laws of the new United States differed little from it's former "mother country" in terms of the status of widows, widowers and lineal descendants.

Virginia, Wills and Probate Records, 1652-1983, Powhatan County, Wills,
Inventories and Accounts, Vol. 4-6, 1811-1824, pages 405; courtesy
Ancestry.com

Virginia, Wills and Probate Records, 1652-1983, Powhatan County, Wills,
Inventories and Accounts, Vol. 4-6, 1811-1824, page 406; courtesy of
Ancestry.com

On 27 March 1815 Benjamin Jennings wrote his last will and testament. He would have been at least 75 years old, perhaps older, and maybe he was ailing:
***
In the name of God, amen, I Benjamin Jennings, Senr., being in common health and perfect mind and memory, make this my last will and testament, in manner form as followeth:

First, I give to my Daughter Elizabeth Walrond, the other half of my land whereon I now live, being the remainder, after the one half already given to my Daughter Dorotha Pemberton by Deed recorded in Powhatan Court, to her and her heirs forever. --

And, as I have already given as above mentioned to Dorotha Pemberton, the one half of my tract of land, I do not give her any more of my Estate. --

Item, I give to my son Benjamin Jennings, Junr. one Dollar, to him and his heirs forever. --

Item, I give to my son Daniel Jennings, one Dollar, to him and his heirs forever. --

Item, I give to my sons, Edmund Jennings, John Jennings, James Jennings and my Daughter Patsey Jennings, all the rest of my Estate, consisting of Negroes, horses, cattle, hogs, and all my household and Kitchen furniture of every description, plantation utensils and all debts due me at my decease and all monies in hand, to be equally divided among, and their heirs forever. -- Lastly, I constitute my faithful friends John Depp and Edward B. Jennings Executors of this my last will and testament: in testimony whereof I have set my hand and seal hereunto this 27th day of March 1815. --

Benjamin [his mark] Jennings (Seal)

Signed, sealed, and published in the presence of:

James Atkinson
Benj. Burton
John Roper
Wm. Atkinson
***
I had known Benjamin owned land and slaves from an abstract of his will included in Beatrice Doughtie's book, Documented Notes on Jennings and Allied Families. But there is something satisfying to a genealogist when you have the source document and not just an abstract from someone else. Doughtie's book did not include any further information and there was more to learn. And, I've had questions about this will for a long time.

Was Benjamin trying to disinherit his sons, Benjamin, Jr., and Daniel, by giving them $1 dollar?
Why did he not mention his second wife, Elizabeth (McGruder) Jennings? She was still alive.
Why divide his land among his married daughters? Why not give it to his sons? Or to all of his children equally?

Benjamin died not long after writing his will. His executors and subscribing witnesses filed the will with the Powhatan County Court clerk on 19 July 1815. His "faithful friend," John Depp, relinquished his right to act as an executor and James Atkinson, Benjamin Burton and William Atkinson swore an oath that the will filed with the clerk was the last will and testament of Benjamin Jennings. On the same day, Benjamin's widow, Elizabeth, relinquished her rights under the will and instead claimed her dower rights:
***
To the Court of Powhatan County:--

My husband Benjamin Jennings Senr. decd. not mentioning me in his last Will and testament, I do hereby claim by Dowery which the law hath provided in that case, to wit, my thirds of land and all other property of which my husband held at his death:-- The one half of the land my husband gave to Dorotha Pemberton by deed, in his life time: one third of which I claim, as I did not relinquish my right in the Deed; also one third of the other half of his land, which he gave in his will to Elizabeth Walrond:-- Also, it is my wish and desire that the Court appoint commissioners today to have my thirds of said land laid off immediately, that I may provide thereon for a crop of small grain.

Elizabeth Jennings

Teste,

Wm. Atkinson
John Depp
***
William C. Dance, deputy clerk, recorded her request for dower rights in the county will book on the same day.

If heirs contested a will or any action taken by an executor, they filed a bill of complaint in the county Chancery Court. I looked for a case in which one or more of Benjamin's children expressed issues with his will. Several of Benjamin's children had moved to Chesterfield County before and after his death. Unfortunately, the chancery cases for that county have been indexed by the Library of Virginia but the digital images of the case files are not yet online. Son, John, had moved to Buckingham County and those files have not yet been indexed or digitized. I can find no evidence that any of the children who remained in Powhatan County tried to overturn their stepmother's claim. Dower rights protected Elizabeth's right to profit from some portion of her deceased husband's estate and typically were in effect until her death or remarriage.

On 24 July 1815 Edward B. Jennings, executor of Benjamin's will submitted an estate appraisal to the court:

Benjamin Jennings Estate Appraisal
Description Value
Betty 50.00
Billy 500.00
Mary 150.00
Sorrel horse 15.00
Bay mare 30.00
3 Head of cattle 30.00
2 Sows and 6 pigs 19.00
3 Bed steads and furniture 60.00
Parcel of barrels and old bed steads 3.00
3 Cotton wheels 3.50
2 Flax wheels 4.00
Grindstone 2.50
One wheat riddle 0.25
One chest 2.00
One chest 4.00
One cupboard 6.00
Table 2.50
One looking glass 1.25
3 Jugs and one butter pot 3.00
1 [illegible] hatchel [sp] and comb 1.50
1 Pair of flat irons 0.75
2 Pair of sheep shears 0.50
5 Pair of Cards [sp] and baskets 3.00
1 Piece of Leather 0.25
4 slays [sp] 2.50
10 chairs 3.50
1 Loom, warping box and [illegible] 7.00
2 Trays and meal sifter 0.75
1 Table 0.12
2 Tubs, piggins [sp] and nogan [sp], 1 can and water pail 3.00
1 Pot, hooks, skillet and oven 2.50
1 shovel, tongs, and fire iron 1.00
1 Gun 2.50
1 Lot of tin ware 1.50
Parcel of Pewter viz. 2 dishes , plates and 5 spoons 5.00
1 Casther [sp] dish, 3 plates, 1 pitcher and bowl 1.00
1 Decanter, 1 Bottle and one mug 0.70
1 Decanter, 5 Sauces, 4 Tea spoons, 3 cups, one pepper box and [illegible] 0.50
2 saddles and one bridle 2.50
1 Cutting knife 0.50
1 Scythe 1.00
3 hilling hoe and grub hoe 2.75
5 knives and forks 0.75
One half share plow, harrow, Trowel hoe, and N. G. Coulter 4.50
3 Pole axes, chopping ax and spade 3.00
3 augurs, 1 hand saw and drawing knife 1.50
1 Sock chain, 1 Pair wedges, and painboxes 1.75
2 par of hawes [sp], 1 collar and cart saddle and single tree 2.50
3 Basketts 0.75
One pot, one Kettle, steaming iron and lot of Hatter’s tools 2.50
1 Pot and Lubute [sp] 2.00
1 Hogshead 0.50
Parcel Book of Gin [sp] number 1.50
1 Table cloth and Towel 1.50
2500 [illegible] of Oats (supposed) @ C/p hundred 25.00
12 Barrels 4.50
1 Note Given by Edwd. B. Jennings to the decd. Benjamin Jennings dated the 4th day of Octr.1814 for the sum of $142.50  142.50
Cr. on the above note for the sum of $9.25
Due bill of Leroy Hall’s for Payable 25 December 1813 4.67
1,333.84

The deputy clerk recorded the appraisal on 16 August 1815 and with that record, the file was complete. Benjamin Jennings lived a long, eventful life -- and that just the portion of his life we've been able to uncover -- but the documents end.

This is my entry for Amy Johnson Crow's 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks. The theme for this week was "Longevity." Outliving the average life expectancy in the first half of the 17th century by at least 38 years qualifies!

Using the Ancestral Reference Numbering System, Benjamin Jennings is Ancestor No. 64 on my family.

64. Benjamin Jennings, born circa 1740[1] in Virginia; died in 1815; will written on 27 March 1815 in Powhatan County, Virginia and proved on 19 July 1815 in Powhatan County; married 1) to an unknown woman (many people believe Sally Dickerson, or Dickinson/Dickenson, before 1765 and 2) to Elizabeth McGruder, daughter of William McGruder, on 10 Feb 1796 in Powhatan County. Known issue are listed in order they appear in Benjamin's will:
     
      64.1 Elizabeth "Betsey" Jennings married Benjamin Waldron[2 and 5] on 11 January 1810 in Powhatan County. This Benjamin is not a known relative of Anna Maria Waldron[3], John W. Jennings' wife.    

     64.2 Dorothea Jennings born circa 1777-1779; died after 1860; married John Pemberton on 18 February 1796 in Powhatan County.

     64.3 Benjamin Jennings, Jr. born before 1762[3]; married 1) Kisiah Roper, daughter of Shadrach Roper, on 4 December 1792 in Powhatan County and 2) Sally Boles, daughter of Henry Boles, on 9 January 1804 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

     64.4 Daniel Jennings born between 1771-1780; married Martha Watkins, daughter of Joseph Watkins, on 17 December 1800 in Chesterfield County.

     64.5 Edmund (or Edward) Jennings born between 1771 and 1780[4]; married Jemima Chappell, daughter of Ann Chappell, on 23 May 1798 in Chesterfield County.

     32.0 John W. Jennings, Sr. born circa 1776-1777; died 19 December 1858 in Amherst County, Virginia; married Anna Mariah (or Anna Maria) Waldron[3 and 5], daughter of Benjamin Waldron, Sr., on 19 January 1805 in Bedford County, Virginia.

     64.6 James Jennings married Rebecca Waldron[*] on 8 April 1811 or 1816 in Bedford County, Virginia. Rebecca is likely a sibling or cousin of John W. Jennings, Sr.'s wife, Anna Mariah or Anna Maria Waldron.[3 and 5]
    
     64.7 Martha "Patsy" Jennings born circa 1795 to Benjamin Jennings' second wife; died in 1854 in Amelia County, Virginia; married Benjamin Burton, son of Benjamin Burton, on 11 November 1816 in Powhatan County.

_______________
The information about the three slaves owned by Benjamin Jennings, Sr., at the time of his death has been included in the Slave Name Roll Project.

[1] The birth date for Benjamin Jennings, Sr., is from another researcher and I do not know the reasoning behind it. The only document that notes his age is the 1810 census, which categorizes him as 45 and older.
[2] There were three men in Virginia, who were alive at this time named Benjamin Walrond. All three used the Sr. and Jr. suffixes on different occasions. Anna Maria Waldron's father, Benjamin, Sr.,  lived in Pittsylvania and Campbell counties and her brother, Benjamin, Jr., lived in Bedford County. Elizabeth Jennings' husband was neither of these men. He lived in Powhatan and Chesterfield counties. His possible relationship to Anna Maria is not known. (See Did John W. Jennings, c1777-1858, Marry His Niece? for more details.)
[3] Benjamin Jennings, Jr., appeared on the 1783 Powhatan County Tax List as a head of family. Assuming he was at least 21 years of age, then the latest he could have been born was 1762.
[4] Based on Edmund Jennings being 50-59 years of age in 1830 and 60-69 in 1840.
[5] Waldron was most commonly spelled Walrond before the Civil War.

Sources:
Doughtie, Beatrice, Documented Notes on Jennings and Allied Families, (Decatur, GA: Bowen Press, 1961), pages 637-641).
Haertle, Eugene A. The History of the Probate Court, 45 Marquette Law Review 546, 1962 (accessed 19 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815), Beginnings and Endings (accessed 11 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815), Morgan's Riflemen (accessed 16 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Revolutionary War Soldier (accessed 16 January 2018)
Virginia Wills and Probate Records, 1652-1983, database, Ancestry.com, Benjamin Jennings 27 Mar, 19 Jul, 24 Jul 1815, Powhatan County Virginia, images 11, 236-238, 241-242 (accessed 1 January 2018)

Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Morgan's Riflemen
Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Beginnings and Endings
Who Was the Original Jennings Immigrant?
Did John W. Jennings, Sr. (c1777-1858) Marry His Niece?

Monday, January 15, 2018

Winter at Valley Forge with Gen. Washington

In my recent post about the Revolutionary War service of Benjamin Jennings, I gave short shrift to the winter at Valley Forge in 1777-78. Much has been written about that terrible time for the soldiers and about privations and disease the men "battled" while there, but I thought I would describe in more detail the patrol area for which Col. Daniel Morgan's men were responsible.

Morgan's Riflemen, a light infantry corps composed of men selected for their marksmanship abilities, including my four times great grandfather, Benjamin Jennings, Sr., were responsible for patrolling the area from Gulph Mill to the Radnor Meetinghouse. The mill was about 9 miles southeast of the encampment at Valley Forge and about 6 or 7 miles north of the meetinghouse.

The patrol area of Morgan's Riflemen during the winter of 1777-78; created
using Google Maps

The mill was built in 1747 and supplied flour to Gen. Washington's soldiers at their winter quarters. Flour from the mill was probably used to make the infamous "firecake," a tasteless mixture of flour and water when supplies were inadequate, which was often the case that winter. Washington's men spent a week in the area around the Gulph Mill before Gen. Washington decided the higher ground at Valley Forge would be more suitable for a winter encampment.

Gulph Mill c1922; courtesy of Wikipedia

The Radnor Friends Meetinghouse, built in 1717, was about 6 miles south of Gulph Mill. During the winter of 1777-78, it was used as an outpost by the Continental Army.

Radnor Meetinghouse c2009; courtesy of Wikipedia

Based on the patrol area assigned to Morgan's Riflemen, I do not know if the men spent much time at the main camp in Valley Forge. It is quite possible, they were the soldiers using Radnor meetinghouse as an outpost during the winter of 1777-78.

_______________
52 Ancestors: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): A Morgan's Riflemen

Thursday, January 11, 2018

52 Ancestors #2: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): A Morgan's Rifleman

Continued from 52 Ancestors #1: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Beginnings and Endings

Ancestor: Benjamin Jennings, four times great grandfather
DNA Haplogroup: I-M253

The General Assembly of Virginia voted unanimously for independence on 15 May 1776 and its Declaration of Rights was published on 12 June. Article 13 of that declaration:

"That a well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural and safe defense of a free state, that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided as dangerous to liberty; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power."

Service in the Virginia Militia

All able-bodied men between 16 years of age and 55, who were residents of Virginia, were required to serve in the state militia when called to do so. Benjamin Jennings served in the Virginia Militia as a private with Capt. Thomas Gaddis Co. from 9 September until 2 October 1776. They were sent to what is now Beech Bottom, West Virginia, about 20 miles north of Wheeling, West Virginia, on the Ohio River. At the time this area was part of Virginia's western frontier. The company's primary responsibility was to keep the lines of communication open to Fort Henry, in Wheeling, and scouting for hostile Indians.

Fort Henry, built in 1774 and originally named Fort Fincastle; drawing courtesy
of Wikipedia

Virginia played a pivotal role in the struggle for independence. By 1777 Virginia had raised 15 regiments of infantry for service under Continental Congress Authority. These regiments were commonly known as the Virginia Continental Line. Troops recruited to serve within the borders of the Old Dominion were known as the Virginia State Line. Virginia ignored the desire of the Continental Congress, who wanted service in the war to be for the duration and instead required each man to serve three years.

Service with the Continental Army

After his service in the militia, Benjamin returned to his family until 1777 when he was drafted or enlisted in the Continental Army, likely in late winter or early spring. During this period of service Benjamin was selected to join a provisional rifle corps commanded by Colonel Daniel Morgan, which became known as Morgan's Riflemen. He served as a private under Capt. James Knox. This corps of men were an elite light infantry unit equipped with cutting-edge rifles instead of muskets, allowing superior accuracy at up to ten times the distances of typical troops of the day. The men, primarily from Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, were chosen from Continental army for their marksmanship abilities.

The British strategy in 1777 was to divide New England from the southern colonies using a three-way pincer movement with troops under the command of Barry St. Ledger coming from Ontario through western New York following the Mohawk River; William Howe bringing his troops up the Hudson from New York City; and John Burgoyne's troops coming from Montreal south down Lake Champlain and the upper Hudson valley.

George Washington had placed Horatio Gates in control of the Northern Department of the Continental Army, which was headquartered on Van Schaick Island (now Green Island) at the home of Anthony Van Schaick, just a few miles from my new home in upstate New York.

Van Schaick Mansion; photograph by Ted Fischer on 7 September 2013,
courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

The Continental troops planned to prevent the three British generals from joining together and had chosen the area where the Mohawk River joins the Hudson. Extensive breastworks had been prepared, but conditions on the ground started to turn in the Colonial Army's favor. St. Ledger broke his siege of Fort Stanwix in what is now Rome, New York, and retreated in the face of Benedict Arnold's[1] force, which was sent to relieve the besieged fort. William Howe, instead of moving up the Hudson sailed to Philadelphia to pursue Washington, leaving Burgoyne to face Gates' troops alone. Burgoyne's Indian troops fled after a detachment of his troops lost at Bennington, Vermont. He, therefore, had little local intelligence about the opposing army as well as little or no ability to be resupplied.

On 22 August 1777 Gen. Gates wrote a letter to George Washington, from his headquarters on Van Schaick Island describing the situation he faced. In the letter he mentioned Morgan's Riflemen:

"I cannot sufficiently thank your Excellency for sending Colonel Morgan's corps to this army. They will be of the greatest service to it for until the late successes this way I am told the army were quite panic struck by the Indians and their Tory and Canadian assassins in Indian dressers.  Horrible indeed have been the cruelties they have wantonly committed upon many of the miserable inhabitants, inasmuch as it is not fair for General Burgoyne, even if the bloody hatchet he has so barbarously used should find its way into his own head. "

Gen. Washington came to Van Schaick Island to review the plans to meet Burgoyne. It was decided the Continental Army would move north to a point east of Saratoga Springs near the Hudson River.

Map of the Saratoga battlefields; courtesy of the Library of Congress

After moving his troops from the areas around Van Schaick Island north along the Hudson River to Bemis Heights, about 10 south of Saratoga Springs. They spent about a week building the defensive works designed by Thaddeusz Kosciuszko, a Polish military engineer. Their position was a commanding one as the only road to Albany passed through a defile between the heights and the river.

Battle of Freeman's Farm

On 19 September, Gates' army began its attack. Benedict Arnold[1] commanded the left wing and Horatio Gates, the right. Burgoyne's plan was to turn the American left flank by negotiating the heavily wooded high ground west of Bemis Heights. Morgan's Riflemen were sent on a reconnaissance mission. They spotted a British advance force approaching the farm fields of John Freeman. Morgan placed his sharpshooters in strategic positions and they proceeded to kill or wound every British officer they saw; however, they were attacked by the main body of the British force and scattered into the woods.

There was a lull in the fighting until reinforcements on both sides arrived. Morgan's men were able to regroup and resumed executing officers. They were so successful, they captured several British artillery pieces, but would lose them as the British regrouped and charged. There were several ebbs and flows during the battle at Freeman's farm that day. During the afternoon, the British made serious attacks against both sides of the Gates' line. Fortunately, for the American darkness set in and they retreated back to their defensive works on Bemis Heights. By leaving the field to Burgoyne, the battle was considered a small victory for the British, but they had suffered nearly 600 casualties that could not be replaced.

After the day's action, Burgoyne decided to wait for Howe to arrive up the Hudson, not knowing Howe had gone to Philadelphia and was not already on the march north. Despite the interlude, there was almost daily contact between the British and American forces. Morgan's sharpshooters, who understood the tacts of woodland warfare harassed the enemy continually.

Battle of Bemis Heights

The interlude in the fighting ended on 7 October 1777. Gates had relieved Benedict Arnold and assumed command of the left flank himself.  Burgoyne decided to personally reconnoiter the American left to see if an attack was possible. He went in force and reached a wheat field quite close to the American lines. The British movement was espied by scouts and reported back to Gates. He ordered his line to attack with Morgan's Riflemen on the left.

The redcoats began the shooting by firing on the right flank of Gates' line. The terrain made the attack fairly ineffective and the Continentals held their fire, opening up when the British were at close range. The fighting on this end of the line was a total rout. British generals were taken prisoner and several artillery pieces captured.

Things were not going well for Burgoyne on the American's left either. Morgan's men had engaged and foiled several attempts the British troops made to move west. When a high-ranking British officer, who was commanding the attack was mortally wounded, British soldiers retreated in a disorganized fashion towards their defensive works. Burgoyne was very nearly killed by one of Morgan's sharpshooters; three shots hit his horse, hat and waistcoat.

General Benedict Arnold, angry at having been removed from command of the left flank, rode up to watch the battle just as the British began retreating. Gates ordered Arnold to chase them and a furious battle at the British Great Redoubt, as its defensive works were called, ensued. Arnold's forces captured the redoubt just as darkness fell.

There isn't a known likeness of Benjamin Jennings, but my husband and I did visit the Saratoga National Historic Park on the 238th anniversary of the opening battle at Freeman's Farm. When the park rangers learned I was a direct descendant of one of Morgan's Riflemen, we were given a personal tour. Some of the photos I took that day may be found here:

Saratoga National Historic Park Album

Site of the British "Great Redoubt," where Burgoyne's forces were defeated;
personal collection

Since I don't often get to walk on the very grounds my ancestors did, our day at the park and these photos are treasured indeed!

After the battle Burgoyne withdrew is troops and surrendered.  When Congress learned of the victory, a national day of thanksgiving was proclaimed on 18 December 1777 -- the first official observance of a holiday with that name.

The battles of Saratoga were a turning point in the war. France decided to enter the war after news reached them of Burgoyne's surrender, allowing the revenge against their defeat at the hands of the British during the French and Indian War a decade earlier.

Return to Washington's Army

Soon after Burgoyne's surrender, Gates ordered Morgan to return to the main army. The rifle corps reached Fishkill, New York, on 31 October 1777. The men were temporarily assigned garrison duty near New Windsor, along the Hudson. It was at this location Morgan met Alexander Hamilton on 2 November and learned Washington wanted Morgan to return to him quickly. They marched so fast many men threw away their worn-out shoes along the way.

Morgan's corps joined Washington's main army at White Marsh, Pennsylvania. It was here French Marquis de Lafayette had the opportunity to lead a party of Morgan's men on a scouting expedition. They met a large Hessian picket and Morgan's men force them to retreat over a mile and a half. Lafayette exclaimed to Washington, the men were "above even their reputation."

Morgan's riflemen were busy upon their return to the main army. They were frequently conducting reconnaissance missions up and down the Delaware River, returning to camp near White Marsh on 7 December, just in time for the third and final day of the Battle of White Marsh.

Battle of White Marsh

The Battle of White Marsh was the last major engagement of 1777 and was a series of skirmishes that took place over three days, from 5 December through 8 December. After his defeat at Germantown, Washington marched his men north, established entrenched positions and monitored British positions. British General Howe (who was supposed to have marched up the Hudson in support of Burgoyne, but instead sailed his men to Philadelphia and defeated Washington) decided to engage with Washington one last time in hopes of destroying Washington and his army before the onset of winter.

As daylight broke on the morning of 8 December Morgan's Riflemen and Col. Christopher Gist's Maryland Militia, occupied a wooded elevation, a mile or so in front of the American center. British General Howe had ordered General Grey's men up Whitemarsh Church Road toward the American center. Morgan and Gist's men opened fire and sustained it as the British scrambled for the woods and some protection. The American's were severely out numbered but fought fiercely before they were flanked. Part of Morgan's men provided covering fire while the rest retreated in good order. Morgan and Gist watched the British closely but they wanted no more and withdrew to Philadelphia.

After the British withdrew back into Philadelphia, George Washington ordered his army to their winter encampment at Valley Forge. During the winter of 1777-78 Morgan's Riflemen were responsible for patrolling the area between Gulph Mills and Radnor Meeting House on the west side of the Schuylkill River. Patrolling was mainly routine and included reporting on enemy foraging parties and manning check stations on various roads to prevent Loyalist farmers from supplying the enemy. The infantry was also drilled and trained by Baron Von Steuben and Nathaniel Greene.

1778

British General Howe was replaced by Sir Henry Clinton, who withdrew from Philadelphia to concentrate the bulk of his forces in New York. Morgan was detached from Washington's main army again to assist New Jersey militia units in the impeding of Clinton's progress. He and his men were to operate on right side of the British column while General Charles Scott hectored them from the left. For the next several days, Morgan's men sniped at the British, demolished bridges and felled trees along their path.

Because of a series of communication blunders Morgan and his men did not participate in the Battle of Monmouth Courthouse on 23 June 1778. This rankled Morgan for months. His riflemen skirmished with the British rear guard a few days after Clinton's main army had sailed from Sandy Hook to New York City. Later, Morgan and his men rejoined Washington's main army at White Plains, New York.

Morgan's rifle corps was no longer at effective manpower strength having been depleted by casualties and temporary assignment of companies to the northern frontier to help guard against Indian forays. The corps was disbanded at the end of 1778, which coincides with the last payroll record I have for Benjamin Jennings. If he served his full three-year term, he served with another unit I have yet to discover.

This is my entry for Amy Johnson Crow's 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks. I participated in 2014 and 2015 by writing about any interesting ancestor I was researching at the time I wrote the post. In 2017, I am taking a more disciplined approach and will be writing about the ancestors in my direct line only. The theme for this week was "Favorite Photo."

Because Benjamin Jennings and his second wife did not live long enough to claim a Revolutionary War pension, his service history was pieced together researching the various units named in his service and payroll records. I have ordered his file from the National Archives and Records Administration, but it has not yet arrived.

Using the Ancestral Reference Numbering System, Benjamin Jennings is Ancestor No. 64 on my family tree.

64. Benjamin Jennings, born circa 1740[2] in Virginia; died in 1815; will written on 27 March 1815 in Powhatan County, Virginia and proved on 19 July 1815 in Powhatan County; married 1) to an unknown woman (many people believe Sally Dickerson, or Dickinson/Dickenson) before 1765 and 2) to Elizabeth McGruder, daughter of William McGruder, on 10 Feb 1796 in Powhatan County. Known issue are listed in order they appear in Benjamin's will:
     
      64.1 Elizabeth "Betsey" Jennings married Benjamin Waldron[3] on 11 January 1810 in Powhatan County. This Benjamin is not a known relative of Anna Maria Waldron[3], John W. Jennings' wife.    

     64.2 Dorothea Jennings born circa 1777-1779; died after 1860; married John Pemberton on 18 February 1796 in Powhatan County.

     64.3 Benjamin Jennings, Jr. born before 1762[4]; married 1) Kisiah Roper, daughter of Shadrach Roper, on 4 December 1792 in Powhatan County and 2) Sally Boles, daughter of Henry Boles, on 9 January 1804 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

     64.4 Daniel Jennings born between 1771-1780; married Martha Watkins, daughter of Joseph Watkins, on 17 December 1800 in Chesterfield County.

     64.5 Edmund (or Edward) Jennings born between 1771 and 1780[5]; married Jemima Chappell, daughter of Ann Chappell, on 23 May 1798 in Chesterfield County.

     32.0 John W. Jennings, Sr. born circa 1776-1777; died 19 December 1858 in Amherst County, Virginia; married Anna Mariah (or Anna Maria) Waldron[3], daughter of Benjamin Waldron, Sr., on 19 January 1805 in Bedford County, Virginia.

     64.6 James Jennings married Rebecca Waldron[3] on 8 April 1811 or 1816 in Bedford County, Virginia. Rebecca is likely a sibling or cousin of John W. Jennings, Sr.'s wife, Anna Mariah or Anna Maria Waldron.[3]
    
     64.7 Martha "Patsy" Jennings born circa 1795 to Benjamin Jennings' second wife; died in 1854 in Amelia County, Virginia; married Benjamin Burton, son of Benjamin Burton, on 11 November 1816 in Powhatan County.

_______________
[1] Benedict Arnold had not yet committed treason and switched sides (from American to British).
[2] The birth date for Benjamin Jennings, Sr., is from another researcher and I do not know the reasoning behind it. The only document that notes his age is the 1810 census, which categorizes him as 45 and older. We do know his son Benjamin Jennings was born on or before 1762.
[3] There were three men in Virginia, who were alive at this time named Benjamin Walrond. All three used the Sr. and Jr. suffixes on different occasions. Anna Maria Waldron's father, Benjamin, Sr.,  lived in Pittsylvania and Campbell counties and her brother, Benjamin, Jr., lived in Bedford County. Elizabeth Jennings' husband was neither of these men. He lived in Powhatan and Chesterfield counties. His possible relationship to Anna Maria is not known. (See Did John W. Jennings, c1777-1858, Marry His Niece? for more details.) Waldron was most commonly spelled Walrond before the Civil War.
[4] Benjamin Jennings, Jr., appeared on the 1783 Powhatan County Tax List as a head of family. Assuming he was at least 21 years of age, then the latest he could have been born was 1762.
[5] Based on Edmund Jennings being 50-59 years of age in 1830 and 60-69 in 1840.

Sources:
Ancestry.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings Sep 1776 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Ancestry.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings Mar 1778 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Battle of Bemis Heights, The, History.com, accessed 2 January 2018.
Battle of Bennington, Wikipedia, accessed 2 January 2018.
Battle of Fort Ann, Path Through History, accessed 2 January 2018.
Battle of Freeman's Farm, British Battles, accessed 2 January 2018.
Battles of SaratogaWikipedia, accessed 13 October 2015.
Battle of Monmouth, Wikipedia, accessed 8 January 2018.
Battle of White Marsh, Wikipedia, accessed 8 January 2018.
Bennington Battlefield, Path through History, accessed 2 January 2018.
Philadelphia Campaign, Wikipedia, accessed 7 January 2008
Saratoga Campaign, Wikipedia, accessed 7 January 2008.
DAR.org, Ancestral File for Benjamin Jennings, A062263 (accessed 1 May 2014).
Doughtie, Beatrice, Documented Notes on Jennings and Allied Families, (Decatur, GA: Bowen Press, 1961), pages 637-641).
Eckenrode, H. J., Revolutionary Soldiers of Virginia(Richmond: Public Printing, 1912), page 165 (accessed on 2 May 2014).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Jul 1777 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Aug 1777 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Nov 1777 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Jan 1778 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Feb 1778 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for Dec 1778 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Fold3.com, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 for Benjamin Jennings for 1778 (accessed 12 September 2012).
Gwathmey, John H. (Editor). Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, (Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979) page 417.
Higginbotham, Dan. Daniel Morgan: Revolutionary Riflemen, (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1961), pages 55-78.
Ketchum, Richard M. Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War, (New York, NY: Macmillan Publishers, 1997), pages 1-551.
LaCrosse, Richard B., Jr., Revolutionary Rangers: Daniel Morgan's Riflemen and Their Role on the Northern Frontier, 1778-1783, (NOTE: this entry cannot be completed until my books are no longer in storage in North Carolina).
Library of Virginia, Virginia Chancery Records, Powhatan County 1806-03 Samuel Panrey v. Benjamin Jennings (accessed 14 December 2012).
Morgan's Riflemen, Wikipedia, accessed 20 September 2012.
Saratoga National Historical Park, National Park Service, accessed 17 October 2015.
Siege of Fort Stanwix, Wikipedia, accessed 2 January 2018.
Tangled Roots and Trees, 52 Ancestors #1: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Beginnings and Endings (accessed 8 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, British Surrender at Saratoga (accessed 8 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Revolutionary War Soldier (accessed 8 January 2018)
Virginia Militia, Wikipedia, accesses 30 September 2012).
Wright, Robert K., Jr. The Continental Army(Washington, DC: Center for Military History, 2006) pages 1-471.

52 Ancestors: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Beginnings and Endings
Who Was the Original Jennings Immigrant?
Did John W. Jennings, Sr. (c1777-1858) Marry His Niece?

Monday, January 8, 2018

What Happened to Sophia, Widow of Terresha "Terry" Jewell?

A case in Virginia Circuit Superior Court and Chancery revealed Sophia Jewell was the widow of Terresha Jewell, known as Terry, often transcribed and indexed as Jerry, with three minor daughters -- Sarah Ellen, Frances Ann, and Mary Elizabeth. We know Terry Jewell died sometime before 14 May 1838 as that was the date Sophia appeared before the Kanawha County court requesting guardianship of her children who were described as the "orphan children of Terry Jewell, deceased..." Her motion was granted the same day.

Virginia Chancery case 1841-009, page 74; courtesy of the Library of Virginia

Those three little girls were my first cousins three times removed, nieces of my great great grandmother, Catherine B. (Jewell) Jennings.

Terry died when Kanawha County was still part of Virginia. Virginia did not require counties to record deaths until 1853 and West Virginia did not require statewide registration until 1917. Currently, this court case is the best evidence we have of his death until some other substitute record may be found, such as an obituary or funeral record. However, I did learn that Terry and Sophia were married in 31 March 1832 in Kanawha County by James C. Taylor. Sophia's name was listed as Sophia Ann Mahone, so I surmised that was her maiden name and her three daughters were born between 1832 and 1838.

Sophia married again to Hiram Harbour on 16 June 1839, according to the return sent to the Kanawha County clerk by Francis A. Timmous. Sophia was listed as Mrs. Sophia Juel. In 1840 Hiram was enumerated in the federal census as the head of a household comprised of seven people in Kanawha County:

1840 Household of Hiram Harber (Harbour); created with Microsoft Excel

We may assume Hiram was the male between 20-29 years of age, making the range of his birth between 1811 and 1820. Sophia was the female between 30-39 years of age. The three young girls are surely Sarah Ellen, Frances Ann and Mary Elizabeth Jewell. The mystery is the male between 10-14 years of age. Who was he?

By 1850 Hiram and his family had moved to Howard County, Missouri, and for the first time all the names of members of his household were enumerated. The mystery boy from the 1840 census was likely John Mahone, who was 23 years of age in 1850. My current theory is he was Sophia's son born out of wedlock and before her marriage to Terry Jewell. Terry's three daughters are also listed in the 1850 census as being 16, 14, and 12 years of age, respectively.

Sarah Ellen (16) and Frances Ann (14) disappeared from the records thereafter. I have not found a trace of Sarah Ellen, but believe Frances Ann died on 1 September 1851 and was interred in the Clarks Chapel Cemetery in New Franklin, Missouri.

Sophia's son John Mahone married Catherine Foster Rhoads in September 1852 in Sacramento County, California, which was my first clue the family had settled there after their sojourn in Missouri.

In 1855 Hiram was charged with assault with the intent to kill due to an incident where he shot Andrew Bates over some horses. Over the next few years he was in and out of court frequently on various matters.

By 10 March 1857 Hiram Harbour lived in Sacramento County and was placing advertisements, likely required by law, in the Sacramento Daily Union that his wife had "abandoned his bed and board" in December 1855 and he wasn't going to pay any debt she may have incurred.

One of five identical advertisements placed by Hiram Harbour in the Sacramento
Daily Union
; courtesy of the California Digital Archives

An article in the same newspaper reported Hiram and Sophia were granted a divorce on 7 March 1859 in Sacramento County.

Mary Elizabeth Jewell married Benjamin H. Hereford on 13 January 1859 in Sacramento County. Benjamin was a city-county councilmen and the son of an attorney; his brother would become a U.S. Senator from West Virginia in the 1870s. They had two sons before Mary died on 27 August 1866 in Virginia City, Nevada.

In 1860 Sophia lived with Mary Elizabeth and her new husband, Benjamin, on their extensive ranch in Lee Township. A notice in the Sacremento Daily Union informed readers that Sophia died on 2 February 1862 in Virginia City, Nevada, where Mary and Benjamin had moved shortly after their second son was born in 1861.

View of Virginia City from a nearby hillside ca. 1867; courtesy Wikipedia

Virginia City was booming when the Hereford family arrived soon after the discovery of the Comstock Lode in 1859. It was once heralded as the most important city between Denver and San Francisco. Samuel Clemens began reporting for the city's newspaper, Territorial Enterprise, under the name Mark Twain in 1862.

NOTE: The Find A Grave memorial for Mary Elizabeth (Jewell) Hereford lists her birth year as 1839. A California mortuary and cemetery card listed her death date as 27 August 1866 and stated her age was 27 years, 3 months and 14 days, making her date of birth 14 May 1839. This cannot be true because she was listed on the request for guardianship, which was filed in Kanawha County court on 14 May 1838. I believe she was actually born in 1838.

_______________
Discovering Henry Downs, Another 4X Great Grandfather
DNA Discoveries: Jewell Progress

Friday, January 5, 2018

52 Ancestors #1: Benjamin Jennings (c1740-1815): Beginnings and Endings

Ancestor: Benjamin Jennings, four times great grandfather
DNA Haplogroup: I-M253

Benjamin Jennings was my four times great grandfather, Revolutionary War patriot, Virginia farmer, and one of my brick walls. He was the first documented direct ancestor in my paternal Jennings line. I have no idea who his parents were or where in the Colony of Virginia he was born. Many of his ancestors thought they were descendants of William Jennens (or Gennens), who lived in England and was believed to be the wealthiest commoner in the country at the time of his death in 1798. The ensuing court case about his real and personal estate inspired Charles Dickens' Bleak House.

We know very little about Benjamin Jennings' life before the Revolutionary War. The only bit of known information was that he or his son, Benjamin, Jr., worked as an overseer in 1775. This reference was found in a 1798 case heard at the Powhatan Chancery Court, I assume the plantation on which he worked was located in the eastern portion of Cumberland County, which later became Powhatan County.

Even if we know very little about Benjamin's life in Colonial Virginia, much has been written about the time period and we can use that information to place Benjamin's life within the context of his time and place. It is possible Benjamin did not yet own land as overseers were often young men who wanted the experience of managing a plantation before owning their own land. As an overseer, he would have been responsible for ensuring the enslaved laborers were doing sufficient work and everything possible was being done to improve the crop yield. Frequently, they were given a small house on the estate and enough land to have their own garden.

Drawing of a tobacco plant c1779; courtesy of
Reusable Art

Powhatan County was formed in 1777 from the eastern portion of Cumberland County. It lies south of the James River about 20 miles southwest of Richmond. The Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant grew well in the rich bottomland soil near the James River. It produced a milder, dark leaf that was the European standard by the time Benjamin Jennings was born. Tobacco was the main cash crop of the colony and the General Assembly had developed a regulated system of tobacco inspection in order to keep standards high. Inspections took place at several locations around the colony, including Manchester[1] a port city on the highlands on the south side of the James River opposite Richmond.

Tobacco was typically packed in a hogshead for shipment to an inspection warehouse. The standard size of a hogshead at the time was 48 inches by 30 inches. Because plantation on which Benjamin worked was above the James River fall line, he had three options for transporting the tobacco hogsheads to a warehouse:
  • By a small river craft called a flat or a shallop, which would have landed at Westham, located just above the falls and then been taken to the port by wagon. 
  • By wagon directly to Manchester.
  • By rolling the hogsheads along the road, which was often an old Indian path. 
One such Indian path began at Manchester and went west to the areas that became Lynchburg and Roanoke. Current day U.S. Rt. 60 generally follows its course. This might well have been the route taken to bring tobacco from Powhatan County to port.

Drawing of men and tobacco hogsheads; courtesy of the National Museum
of American History

No evidence of Benjamin Jennings' family life has been unearthed for the period before the Revolutionary War. Based several documents, such as census records, tax lists, and death record indexes collected for his family, he was certainly married and already had several children before the Revolutionary War began.

Colonial Virginia was described as having a three-tiered society with the top 5 percent or so being landed gentry often called the planter class. However, the society was a really a bit more complex:
  • Enslaved field hands, usually brought from Africa or descendants of the enslaved who typically worked in the tobacco fields.
  • Enslaved house servants, performed skilled tasks such as cooks, laundresses, blacksmiths, coopers, etc.; they were generally considered "better off" but they were still enslaved.
  • Indentured servants, room and board were provided for a specific time period in exchange for learning a trade.
  • Free blacks, they did not enjoy the same rights as white persons but they could own property and work at a wide range of skilled tasks.
  • Farmers, worked their own small farms usually with the help of their children or a small number of slaves.
  • "Middling," these men and women worked in skilled trades but did not own farm land 
  • Gentry, considered the "upper crust" of society, were large land owners, wealthy merchants, and financiers. They own large tracts of land and many slaves. They served as magistrates, councilmen, church vestrymen and so forth.
I believe Benjamin Jennings was likely of what I would call a "middling" social class at this time in his life. This group gained a larger role in society during the 18th century. While they knew and worked a trade, they were less educated than gentry.  Benjamin made his mark to sign his will so could not read or write and to our knowledge did not inherit land, though he acquired land later moving into the farmer class.

Revolutionary War

Benjamin Jennings served during the Revolutionary War on two separate occasions. He was in the Virginia Militia with Capt. Thomas Gaddis' Company and then served in the Continental Army with Col. Daniel Morgan's Corps, known as Morgan's Riflemen. His war service will be described next week.

Life in Powhatan County

Benjamin returned home from the war and settled in Powhatan County. His wife died sometime after that -- between 1780, which was about the time their youngest child was born, and 1796 when Benjamin Jennings married for the second time.

Virginia's economy was in turmoil after the war. Lack of specie to pay off foreign debt hit the low and middle classes hard. Farmers were unable to sell their produce. When they could sell, it was for much less than before the war. How the economy specifically affected Powhatan County and Benjamin Jennings is unknown.

In 1783, Benjamin Jennings and his son, Benjamin Jennings, Jr., appeared on the tax lists for Powhatan County. These lists were collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in order to reconstruct the 1790 census for Virginia, which had been destroyed when the British burned Washington, DC, during the War of 1812. To have appeared on tax lists Benjamin and his son would been 21 years of age or older and have owned land and/or personal property. At the time, neither Benjamin Sr. or Jr. owned slaves. Voting, however, was limited to white male citizens over 21 years of age and owning, by 1785, a 25-acre lot with a house 12 feet square or 50 acres of open land. We do not know when Benjamin Jennings became eligible to vote.

In 1779 the Virginia Land Office was established. It was the responsibility of the office to manage obtaining and selling "waste and unappropriated land." Any person could purchase as much land as desired for a fee of forty pounds for a hundred acres. It's important to remember Virginia was a bigger state than it is today.

Virginia in 1779; courtesy of Map of the U.S.

The process of obtaining land was a complicated one, which involved a trip to the Auditor of Public Accounts to exchange the receipt received after payment for a certificate. This certificate was taken back to the Land Office and presented to the Registrar, who then issued a warrant to have the land surveyed. The purchaser was required to deposit the warrant with the surveyor in the county in which the land was located. Once the survey had been completed, the warrant was returned to the purchaser who had to file it at the Land Office and wait six months. If no claims against the warrant were recorded, the purchaser received a grant, which was signed and sealed by the governor. The grant included a description of the property.

On three separate dates in 1788 a Benjamin Jennings was granted over 6,500 acres of land near the Cheat River in Monongalia County (now part of West Virginia). At this time I do not know if "our" Benjamin Jennings received these grants or if they were granted to another man with the same name. Benjamin had served in the area with the Virginia Militia so it is possible he was familiar with the area. I do not believe he ever lived on the land and perhaps purchased it for speculation. The tax lists for Virginia between 1782 and 1786 only include two men named Benjamin Jennings -- "our" Benjamin and his son, Benjamin, Jr., but that is not definitive proof.

It could be possible these grants were awarded to Benjamin Jennings for his Revolutionary War service. In order to qualify as a war veteran, he would have had to have served in the Continental Army for three years continuously. Service in the militia did not count. The land given to veterans by the Commonwealth of Virginia was located in what is now Kentucky and Ohio. This is the main reason I do not believe these grants were related to his war service if they granted to "our" Benjamin Jennings.

Benjamin's children began marrying in 1792 when Benjamin, Jr. married Kisiah Roper. Benjamin, Jr., was at least 30 years old when he married. Daughter, Dorothea, was next to marry when she wed John Pemberton in 1796 at the age of 18 or 19; Edmund or Edward followed in 1798. Two years later Daniel married; followed by John in 1805. The last two children to marry before Benjamin's death were Elizabeth in 1810 and James in 1811. Benjamin Jr.'s wife likely died sometime soon after the new century began and he married a second time in 1804.

Second Marriage

On 13 February 1796, Benjamin Jennings married for the second time to Elizabeth McGruder, daughter of William Miles McGruder, also of Powhatan County. She was likely at least 20 years Benjamin's junior. Their only daughter, Martha, who went by Patsy" was born around the time of their marriage.

By 1810 when the third U.S. census was enumerated, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Patsy continued to live in Powhatan County and owned three slaves. Benjamin was listed as being 45 years and older; Elizabeth between 26 and 44 years of age; and Patsy, between 10 and 15.

Death of Benjamin Jennings

Benjamin Jennings wrote his last will and testament on 27 March 1815; it was proved on 19 July 1815 and an appraisal of his personal property was filed with the court on 24 July 1815 by the executor, Edward B. Jennings, who was listed in the will as a "faithful friend." The details of the will are described in a future post. His burial location is unknown.

This is my entry for Amy Johnson Crow's 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks. I participated in 2014 and 2015 by writing about any interesting ancestor I was researching at the time I wrote the post. In 2017, I am taking a more disciplined approach and will be writing about the ancestors in my direct line only. My hope is by the end of the year I will have the makings of a book I can share with my siblings and cousins. The theme for this week was "Start, so I am starting with my four times great grandfather, Benjamin Jennings, who is the first definitively proven ancestor in my Jennings line.

A big thank you to all the researchers of this Jennings line who came before me, including my father, Janie Darby, Logan Jennings, Ann Maddox, and so many others. I merely collected documents and validated previous research.

Using the Ancestral Reference Numbering System, Benjamin Jennings is Ancestor No. 64 on my family tree.

64. Benjamin Jennings, born circa 1740[2] in Virginia; died in 1815; will written on 27 March 1815 in Powhatan County, Virginia and proved on 19 July 1815 in Powhatan County; married 1) to an unknown woman (many people believe Sally Dickerson, or Dickinson/Dickenson) before 1765 and 2) to Elizabeth McGruder, daughter of William McGruder, on 10 Feb 1796 in Powhatan County. Known issue are listed in order they appear in Benjamin's will:
     
      64.1 Elizabeth "Betsey" Jennings married Benjamin Waldron[3] on 11 January 1810 in Powhatan County. This Benjamin is not a known relative of Anna Maria Waldron[3], John W. Jennings' wife.    

     64.2 Dorothea Jennings born circa 1777-1779; died after 1860; married John Pemberton on 18 February 1796 in Powhatan County.

     64.3 Benjamin Jennings, Jr. born before 1762[4]; married 1) Kisiah Roper, daughter of Shadrach Roper, on 4 December 1792 in Powhatan County and 2) Sally Boles, daughter of Henry Boles, on 9 January 1804 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

     64.4 Daniel Jennings born between 1771-1780; married Martha Watkins, daughter of Joseph Watkins, on 17 December 1800 in Chesterfield County.

     64.5 Edmund (or Edward) Jennings born between 1771 and 1780[5]; married Jemima Chappell, daughter of Ann Chappell, on 23 May 1798 in Chesterfield County.

     32.0 John W. Jennings, Sr. born circa 1776-1777; died 19 December 1858 in Amherst County, Virginia; married Anna Mariah (or Anna Maria) Waldron[3], daughter of Benjamin Waldron, Sr., on 19 January 1805 in Bedford County, Virginia.

     64.6 James Jennings married Rebecca Waldron[3] on 8 April 1811 or 1816 in Bedford County, Virginia. Rebecca is likely a sibling or cousin of John W. Jennings, Sr.'s wife, Anna Mariah or Anna Maria Waldron.[3]
    
     64.7 Martha "Patsy" Jennings born circa 1795 to Benjamin Jennings' second wife; died in 1854 in Amelia County, Virginia; married Benjamin Burton, son of Benjamin Burton, on 11 November 1816 in Powhatan County.

_______________
[1]The native place of Manastoh was named Rocky Ridge by the English until 1769 when it became an incorporated town in Chesterfield County named Manchester. It eventually merged with the City of Richmond.
[2] The birth date for Benjamin Jennings, Sr., is from another researcher and I do not know the reasoning behind it. The only document that notes his age is the 1810 census, which categorizes him as 45 and older. We do know his son Benjamin Jennings was born on or before 1762.
[3] There were three men in Virginia, who were alive at this time named Benjamin Walrond. All three used the Sr. and Jr. suffixes on different occasions. Anna Maria Waldron's father, Benjamin, Sr.,  lived in Pittsylvania and Campbell counties and her brother, Benjamin, Jr., lived in Bedford County. Elizabeth Jennings' husband was neither of these men. He lived in Powhatan and Chesterfield counties. His possible relationship to Anna Maria is not known. (See Did John W. Jennings, c1777-1858, Marry His Niece? for more details.) Waldron was most commonly spelled Walrond before the Civil War.
[4] Benjamin Jennings, Jr., appeared on the 1783 Powhatan County Tax List as a head of family. Assuming he was at least 21 years of age, then the latest he could have been born was 1762.
[5] Based on Edmund Jennings being 50-59 years of age in 1830 and 60-69 in 1840.

Sources:
1790 U.S. Federal Census (Reconstructed), Virginia State Enumerations 1782-1785), Benjamin Jennings in Powhatan County, Virginia, pages5 8-59 (accessed 5 September 2012)
1810 U.S. Federal Census, database, Ancestry.com (accessed 5 September 2012), Benjm Jennings, 1810; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference Roll: 70; Page: 236; Image: 00451; Family History Library Film: 0181430
About the Virginia Land Office, Library of Virginia (accessed (4 January 2018)
Colonial Social Classes, Colonial Williamsburg (accessed 3 January 2018)
Couture, Richard T. Powhatan: A Bicentennial History, (Richmond, VA: The Dietz Press, 1980), page 97
Doughtie, Beatrice, Documented Notes on Jennings and Allied Families, (Decatur, GA: Bowen Press, 1961), pages 637-641).
DAR.org, Ancestral File for Benjamin Jennings, A062263 (accessed 1 May 2014).
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 404 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 455 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 464 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 482 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 864 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 865 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 866 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 868 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Land Grant Office Records, Land Grant No. 870 (accessed 14 December 2017)
Library of Virginia, Virginia Chancery Records, Powhatan County 1806-03 Samuel Panrey v. Benjamin Jennings (accessed 14 December 2012).
History of Virginia, Wikipedia (accessed 3 January 2018)
Interactive Map of Virginia County Formation History, Map of U.S. (accessed 3 Jan 2019)
Manchester, Richmond, Virginia, Wikipedia (accessed 2 January 2018)
Overseer's Place on a Southern Plantation, History Engine, The (accessed 3 January 2018)
Piedmont of Virginia, Virginia Places (accessed 3 January 2018)
Powhatan County, Virginia, Wikipedia (accessed 2 January 2018)
Powhatan History, Town Square Publications (accessed 3 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, British Surrender at Saratoga, 17 October 2015 (accessed 4 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Did John W. Jennings (c1777-1858) Marry His Niece?, 4 May 2016 (accessed 4 January 2018)
Tangled Roots and Trees, Revolutionary War Soldier, 4 July 2014 (accessed 4 January 2018)
Tobacco in Colonial Virginia, Encyclopedia Virginia (accessed 3 January 2018)
Virginia Department of Transportation. History of Roads in Virginia: The Most Convenient Wayes, October 2006 (accessed 3 January 2018)
Virginia Marriages, 1785-1940," database, FamilySearch, Benjamin Jennings and Kisey Roper, 04 Dec 1792; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference ; FHL microfilm 33,067 (accessed 5 December 2014)
Virginia Marriages, 1785-1940," database, FamilySearch, Benjamin Jennings and Elizabeth Mcgruder, 10 Feb 1796; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference ; FHL microfilm 33,067 (accessed 5 December 2014)
Virginia Marriages, 1785-1940database, FamilySearch, Benjamin Jennings in entry for John Pemberton and Dorothea Jennings, 18 Feb 1796; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference ; FHL microfilm 33,067(5 December 2014),
Virginia Marriages, 1785-1940database, FamilySearch, Benjamin Jennings in entry for Benjamin Walrind and Elizabeth Jennings, 03 Jan 1810; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference ; FHL microfilm 33,067(5 December 2014)
Virginia Marriages, 1785-1940database, FamilySearch, Benja Jennings in entry for Benjamin Burton and Martha Jennings, 11 Nov 1816; citing Powhatan, Virginia, reference ; FHL microfilm 33,067(5 December 2014)
Virginia Wills and Probate Records, 1652-1983, database, Ancestry.com, Benjamin Jennings 27 Mar, 19 Jul, 24 Jul 1815, Powhatan County Virginia, images 11, 236-238, 241-242 (accessed 1 January 2018)

Who Was the Original Jennings Immigrant?
Did John W. Jennings, Sr. (c1777-1858) Marry His Niece?