When we enter a place name into our family tree for an ancestor who lived in the United States, we would enter it [Municipality, County, State, Country] if we followed genealogical standards, for example:
Raleigh, Wake, North Carolina, United States
Gminas are municipalities or communes. Powiats are counties. Voivodeships are provinces (similar to states). Administrative authority at the voivodeship, or province level, is shared between a governor appointed by the central government, an elected assembly (similar to state legislatures), and an executive chosen by that assembly.
|The 16 voivodeships of Poland; map courtesy of Wikipedia|
My great grandfather was born in:
Maliniec, Kolo, Wielkopolskie, Polska
Polish Roots (links and descriptions of archive holdings)
Central Archives of Historical Records
Ukraine is a little more complicated so I will save that for another day.